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1. By stage 4 CKD, approximately what percentage of patients will also have anemia?
2. In 2011, the FDA called for more conservative dosing of ESA therapy in patients with CKD and anemia because of data showing which of the following?
3. The progression of CKD contributes to the development of anemia by decreasing which of the following factors?
4. Functional iron deficiency following ESA treatment partially results from which of the following?
5. Which of the following decreases hepcidin levels?
6. Which of the following is true regarding hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)?
7. LH is a 55-year-old female patient with CKD and anemia. She has been requiring increasing doses of ESA to maintain her hemoglobin levels. She read online about HIF-PHIs undergoing clinical development, and wants to discuss them with you. Which of the following statements about HIF-PHIs and/or their clinical trial outcomes is true?
8. Which of the following is NOT a beneficial (or potentially beneficial) effect associated with HIF-PHIs?